Biology Courses

The Department of Biology offers the following courses. Courses numbered from 100-499 are open to undergraduates. In general, courses numbered 100-199 are taken in the freshman year, courses numbered 200-299 in the sophomore year, courses 300-399 in the junior year, and courses 400-499 in the senior year. There are, however, some variations in this placement according to curriculum and other factors.

Courses numbered from 500-599 are graduate courses open to qualified seniors from undergraduate credit by permission of the appropriate chairperson and the Graduate Dean.

BIOL 100 - Studying for Success-Biology
This one-credit course is designed to provide science students with time-management and study skills as they make the transition to the college level learning environment. Properly implemented, these methods will provide freshmen with the opportunity to succeed and potentially excel in college science courses. Many of these skills will likely be applicable to other courses. The strategies introduced include: time-management, daily and weekly study plans, methods of reading text, how to effectively study for a test, and test taking strategies. Students will also be introduced to some to the basic concepts in biology.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 105 - Freshman Seminar on Sexual Concerns
Introductory course intended exclusively for freshmen of all majors. The course will include an overview of basic biological concepts related to human sexuality. Major topics of presentation will include information about the male and female reproductive systems, microbiology, immunology, pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and a variety of approaches to protect against disease and unwanted pregnancy.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 110 - Human Biology
Introductory course for non-science majors only. Overview of biological aspects of human nature. Survey of basic human physiology, reproduction, and development. Introduction to genetics and the record of human evolution provides starting point for discussion of adaptive significance of human intelligence and social organization.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 111 - Introduction to Biology
Introductory course for non-science majors only. Intended to develop an understanding of the operation of biological systems and an acquaintance with basic biological concepts and principles.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 115 - Environmental Biology
Introductory course for non-science majors only. Study of basic relationships between the environment and humans. Discussion of constraints and relationships in nature from points of view of the physical and life sciences and investigation of how people make decisions to utilize the environment as a resource from the viewpoint of the social sciences. Attempts to link natural and social sciences for awareness of multifaceted nature of environmental problems.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 131 - Principles of Biology I
This course will introduce first semester life science majors to the main themes used to study biology. Three main themes that extend throughout the curriculum include a detailed investigation of the scientific method, evolutionary theory and the diversity of life. The course will also examine the concepts of ecology and nutrient cycles.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 132 - Principles of Biology I Laboratory
Principles of Biology I laboratory is designed to complement the Principles of Biology I lecture course. The lab exercises are designed to expose students to the main themes that are discussed in the lecture portion of the course: the scientific method and the diversity of life.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 133 - Principles of Biology II
The course introduces second semester life science majors to cellular and molecular biology. Students are expected to learn the basic concepts of cellular chemistry, types of cells, cell division, and the central dogma of molecular biology. Students should also learn how cell biology is related to the fields of biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 134 - Principles of Biology II Laboratory
Principles of Biology II laboratory is designed to complement the Principles of Biology II lecture course. The experiments are designed to introduce students to techniques and procedures for studying cells. Students will perform basic skills and techniques that lead to proficiency for more advanced techniques in later courses. Emphasis is placed on students actually doing the procedures and performing the tasks to generate results.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 237 - Genetics
The principles of genetic analysis and the nature of the gene. The course will cover Mendelian and molecular genetics. Key concepts covered will include the chromosomal and molecular basis of inheritance and replication, mutation and expression of genetic information.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 238 - Genetics Laboratory
Exercises will focus on the analysis of the inheritance of genes. DNA isolation and manipulation experiments will be performed. Students will perform experiments in classical and molecular genetics.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 243 - Biodiversity
The goal of this course is to develop an expanded knowledge of evolution illustrated through a discussion of biodiversity. Course content deals with organic evolution, Mendelian and population genetics, evolutionary mechanisms, and taxonomy. This course will also provide a survey of life: viruses, bacteria, Achaea, protists, fungi, plants, and animals as well as comparative anatomies and physiologies explained within an evolutionary context.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 244 - Biodiversity Laboratory
Laboratory course emphasizing a survey of the diversity of life including protists, plants, and animals. Further development of knowledge regarding hypothesis testing, evolution, use of taxonomic keys and constructing phylogenies.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 245 - Human Anatomy and Physiology I
The first course in a two-course sequence. Examines the structural and functional characteristics of the human body. From discussions of concepts of physiological control and levels of organization, this course concentrates on the components of the musculoskeletal system, the integument and an extensive description and analysis of neural and endocrine systems of control. Lab exercises support lecture topics, and involve hands-on activities including dissection and physiological measurement. This course is designed for medical technology majors and those students planning careers in postgraduate allied health careers (pharmacy, physician's assistant, physical therapy) and nursing.
4.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 246 - Human Anatomy and Physiology II
The second course in a two course sequence, the first being BIOL 245 Human Anatomy & Physiology I. Concentrates on discussions of the structural and functional characteristics of the major organ systems of the body, including cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive. Emphasis on the integrative nature of these systems to the maintenance of physiological function. Lab exercises support lecture topics, and involve hands-on activities including dissection and physiological measurement. This course is designed for medical technology majors and those students planning careers in postgraduate allied health careers (e.g. Pharmacy, physician's assistant, physical therapy) and nursing.
4.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 250 - Basic Concepts in Biology
Examination of selected areas of general biology for interested lower division major or non-major. Emphasis on developing basic background in such areas as botany, zoology, and the relationships between these fields and human society. Examples of courses offered include Field Natural History and Fungal Pathogens. Course may not be used as Biology major elective. Topics are determined by student interests.
1.000-6.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 250 - Internship
This sophomore level internship is appropriate for experiences involving job shadowing and other similar situations in health care, academia, government, industry or other foundations. Students must identify an employer, a work supervisor and a faculty member to oversee the student’s program and evaluation. Course credits are available, with faculty approval. Internships range from full-time to part-time, with or without financial compensation. The student must complete a Learning Contract for Experimental Education, which is available from the Internship Office.

BIOL 256 - Introduction to Clinical Science
A course designed to acquaint sophomores with various career opportunities available in medical technology. Educational requirements and professional responsibilities are also discussed. Small group discussions of clinical literature, and a tour of a hospital lab are featured.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 275 - Health Professions Careers
The course is designed to assist students in learning the requirements for admission into health professional schools. We will review the admissions requirements for medical, dental, optometry and veterinary medical colleges and discuss how students can best develop a competitive admissions application. We will also discuss the history of the different health professions.

BIOL 310 - The Human Genome
This course will focus on human genes, their inheritance and the Human Genome Project. The broad subject area of genetics will be covered including studies of genes and genomes in other species to facilitate a better understanding of human genetics. For non-life science majors only.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 330 - General Ecology
Introduction to ecology emphasizing general principles at individual, population, and community levels. Examples of various approaches (observation and experimentation, field and laboratory studies, and modeling and computer simulations) are considered.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 331 - General Ecology Laboratory
Laboratories designed to give a diversity of experience, building upon principles of individual, population, and community ecology. A quantitative approach to the study of ecology is emphasized. Labs include plant and animal studies and field and laboratory experiments, as well as long- and short-term studies.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 333 - Biochemistry
The structure and function of proteins and the regulation of metabolic pathways will be the central concepts presented in the course. Students should gain an understanding of the fundamental principles of the biology of protein molecules. BIOL 237 Genetics recommended as prerequisite.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 334 - Biochemistry Laboratory
Introduction to laboratory practice using biochemical techniques to isolate and characterize proteins. Enzyme kinetics and bioinformatics are also covered.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 336 - Mammalian Physiology
An integrative approach to systems physiology. After an initial discussion on mechanisms of cellular regulation of homeostasis, individual physiological systems, e.g. respiratory, cardiovascular, are examined. Organ and system action are related to demonstrate integration of function within the body. Major emphasis will be on normal human functions.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 337 - Mammalian Physiology Lab
A laboratory course designed to complement BIOL 336 Mammalian Physiology. Laboratory exercises examine, through experimentation, the integrative functions of organs and systems within the body. Labs include excitable cell physiology, cardiovascular, excretory and exercise physiology. Wherever possible, human models are utilized.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 338 - Microbiology
The course includes a basic study of microbial taxonomy, morphology, biochemistry, and reproduction. Great emphasis is placed on medical microbiology, infectious diseases, microbial genetic regulation, and the application of microorganisms in recombinant gene technology. Laboratory includes identification of microbes by colonial and microscopic features, biochemical properties, and antibiotic sensitivities. Two lectures, one laboratory.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 340 - Cell and Subcellular Biology
Cell structure and function at cellular and molecular level using animal, plant, and microbial cells to illustrate common and divergent tenets. Physical and chemical organization of cells, analysis of the cell concept, emphasis on biochemical, physiological, and ultrastructural properties. Laboratory exercises dealing with isolation and characterization of cell fractions. Two lectures, one laboratory.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 343 - Conservation
Study of relationships of people with nature; extensive treatment of world and national problems related to use of natural resources. Basic approach is ecological, but impact of economic, sociological, political, and ethical concepts on human ecology examined. For non-life science majors only.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 344 - Parasitology
A survey of the more important protozoan and helminth parasites of humans. Special emphasis is given to epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of common parasitic diseases.
1.000 Credit Hour

BIOL 345 - Emerging Infectious Diseases
This course will examine infectious diseases whose incidence in humans has increased within the past two decades. The course will focus on the etiological agents, infectious disease process, epidemiology, and the factors associated with the emergence and reemergence of these infectious diseases. For non-life science majors only.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 360 - AIDS and STDs
Discussion of the many ways AIDS and STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) have affected people and the societies in which they live. The course includes information about human physiology, immune defense mechanisms, and microbiology. Detailed biological discussions focus on the transmission of AIDS and STDs, disease symptoms, treatment, and prevention, as well as information on the historical accounts, global and regional impact, ethical, legal and public policy considerations, economic impact of AIDS and STDs, and the psychosocial impact on the individual, family and community. For non-life science majors only.
3.000 Credit Hours

 

BIOL 365 - Bioethics and New Embryology

Technological advancements such as in vitro fertilization (ivf), genetic engineering, and stem cell research have opened the door to many healthy debates about technological capabilities and the development of the embryo. To make informed judgments and participate effectively in debating these issues people should understand the science behind the ethical debates. The course is not about deciding what is right or wrong, but to provide a scientific basis for informed discussion. For non-life science majors only.
3.000 credit hours

 

BIOL 375 - Genes, Health and Society

The genetic makeup and environment in which humans develop makes each person unique. How do variations in these factors contribute to our physical and mental health? From a historical perspective, students will discuss how scientists and physicians study genes and genomes as well as how society reacts to the hope, hype, and fear surrounding these breakthroughs. For non-life science majors only.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 397 - Biochemistry Seminar I
Current biochemical research papers are analyzed in a journal club (open discussion) format. This course will help students to develop critical reading skills and underscore how an array of biochemical techniques are applied to address a research problem. Faculty from both biology and chemistry participate in this seminar.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 410 - Tropical Biology
A lecture and field course on the natural history and ecology of the neotropics. Students examine several terrestrial and marine tropical ecosystems, including lowland rain forests, elfin forests, mangrove communities, and coral reefs. Each student completes a field project and journal. One lecture per week during the semester followed by a two-week field experience in Costa Rica. Students are responsible for travel expenses.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 417 - Comparative Animal Physiology
How animals maintain homeostasis in a non-homeostatic world. After a general introduction to mechanisms of cellular regulation and energetics the class will discuss specific physiological systems (respiratory, cardiovascular, osmoregulatory, etc.) and compare the modes and strategies employed by different animal groups in responding to changes in external environment. Particular attention directed to adaptations to marginal habitats, e.g. marine intertidal, deep sea hydrothermal vents, hot desert.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 419 - Genes and Genomes
The course will focus on the study of DNA and genes from the paper by Watson and Crick to the Human Genome Project. The genetic and molecular approaches used to identify genes and the impact of genome study on society and current scientific research will be discussed.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 420 - Population/Community Ecology
Reading and discussion of primary literature relating to population and community ecology. Topics include population growth, life history patterns, competition, plant-animal interactions, and community organization.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 421 - Biological Conservation
An examination of species diversity with an emphasis on human activities which affect these patterns. Major topics will include the effects of land use practices, habitat fragmentation, invasive species and pollution on the current distribution and extinction patterns of plants and animals.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 422 - Physiological Ecology
Reading and discussion of primary literature relating to animal interactions with the environment. Examination of potential effects of specific habitats (e.g. deserts, deep sea) and the physiological responses of various animals to these environmental challenges.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 424 - Aquatic Biology
Classification and biology of major groups of organisms that inhabit freshwater environments, characteristics of aquatic habitats, pollution of aquatic environments, and the role of physical and chemical factors in aquatic ecosystems.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 426 - Current Environmental Topics
The focus of this course is on global environmental issues. The issues examined have been making the news during the last year and at the time the course is taught. Changes in climate, overpopulation, pollution, conservation, development, genetically modified organisms, invasive species, illegal species trade, etc. are some of the ongoing issues that are covered in the course. The format of the course invites participation, discussion and critical thinking.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 427 - Fisheries Science
This course is an overview of Ichthyology, Fisheries Biology, and Fisheries Conservation. Students will be introduced to the taxonomic diversity of fish, fish adaptations, techniques and models used in the study of fish populations, community interactions, and issues concerning fisheries conservation and management. Special emphasis will be placed on understanding Great Lakes fisheries.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 429 - Field Biology
A field-oriented course with emphasis on developing and testing scientific hypotheses. Activities include identification of local flora and fauna, using a wide variety of field techniques, statistical analysis, and writing scientific reports. Some Saturday field trips required.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 431 - Senior Seminar
Reading, discussion, and analysis of current topics of biological significance using original source material from primary biological periodicals. Students prepare and present a seminar based on an extensive review of the available literature.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 434 - Animal Behavior
Survey on theories and practices in study of animal behavior; emphasis on phylogeny and adaptive significance of behavioral patterns. Research techniques and physiological mechanisms considered in detail.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 435 - Developmental Biology
A study of animal development integrating descriptive, experimental, cellular, and molecular studies of gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, induction, and maturation. Labs examine development from an historical perspective including: descriptive, experimental and molecular embryology incorporating hypothesis testing through the use of micromanipulation, cell culture and immunohisto-chemistry. Two lectures, one laboratory.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 436 - Molecular Biology
Students will study the basic principles of molecular biology including DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Specific attention will be given to the molecular interactions between protein, DNA, and RNA molecules. Students should gain an understanding of the role of molecular interactions in the basic processes required for the flow of information in cells.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 437 - Molecular Genetics Laboratory
Basic molecular genetics techniques are taught within a research project in which students isolate, characterize, and sequence a gene. Other experiments include the identification of organisms based on DNA sequences and the typing of human DNA.
2.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 440 - Undergraduate Research
Independent study and research of mutual interest with faculty member in such areas as morphology, physiology, evolution, development, population dynamics, genetics, biochemistry, cell and subcellular biology, microbiology, ecology, behavior and conservation. Course may be repeated; maximum of 12 credits count toward the B.S. degree, only 3 of which may be included in a Biology major. Note: Students may earn Biology elective credit for BIOL 440, 450 Museum Practicum or 458.
1.000 TO 3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 443 - Plant Physiology
Study of the life processes and responses of plants, including water relations and transport, photosynthesis and general metabolism, mineral and organic nutrition, photoperiodic responses and rhythms, growth and differentiation, and plant relationships with the environment.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 447 - Evolution
Consideration of the theoretical framework of evolutionary biology and the mechanisms of evolution. Special topics include microevolution, macroevolution, and coevolution.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 450 - Modern Concepts in Biology
An in-depth examination of selected areas of biology for interested upper-division students. Topics are determined by faculty and student interests and emphasize methods and recent research developments. Examples include: Biomembranes, Hormone Mechanisms, Molecular Biology, Cell/Hybridoma Culture, and Biology of Terrestrial Vertebrates.1.000-3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 450 - Molecular Biology of Disease

The course will focus on the molecular aspects of human diseases with an emphasis on both the biochemical and genetic causes of different diseases. The correlation of genetic mutations and changes in the properties of proteins will be studied. How researchers study diseases and are working to develop treatments, including gene therapy, will be covered in the course. The course will not focus on infectious diseases.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 450 - Tropical Islands

We will explore the complex natural history, ecology and evolution of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of tropical islands. We will also examine the history and literature of the Bahamas and how the environment and natural history have shaped the culture. Tropical Islands have the world’s highest extinction rates. Environmental issues and island biogeography will be examined in detail.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 450 - Sociobiology

The course covers social behavior from the perspective of evolutionary theory. Topics include sex, aggression, altruism, parent-offspring conflict, and the origin of cooperative societies.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 450 - Molecules and Medicine

The course will cover material on traditional drugs used in medicine and discuss the transition to new drugs that have been designed to interact with a specific target. We will discuss ethical issues relating to medicine and pharmaceuticals. We will read primary literature and review articles as the primary sources of information in the course. We will also read the Henrietta Lacks biography as a starting point for discussions on ethics in medicine.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 450 - Plant Taxonomy

This course provides an introduction to the principles and practice of biological systematics and classification (taxonomy). Emphasis is placed on acquiring the facility to use appropriate terminology in order to identify flowering plants, as well as understanding the historical context and investigative procedures used by taxonomists in developing classifications. Of particular importance is gaining an understanding of the philosophical bases in taxonomy and the relevance of this field to the areas of biology that use classifications.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 450 - Local Natural History

We will explore the natural history of a few of our local natural areas. This is a field based course. We will observe and investigate natural history and also conduct some basic ecological projects.
3.000 Credit Hours

 

BIOL 450 - Muscles and Movement

This course focuses on skeletal muscle biology and the neural control of movement. Skeletal muscles are essential tissues that determine human performance, but they also impact the basic health and well being of non-athletes as well. We will discuss the basic biology of skeletal muscle organization, muscle physiology, basic biomechanics, the central neural control of movement, and skeletal muscle adaptation to use/disuse. Throughout the semester, we will discuss several motor system diseases including Parkinson’s disease, muscular dystrophies, and the effects of aging on muscles. We will also use examples from a variety of animals to illustrate comparative aspects of muscle structure and function. This elective course will be of general interest to Biology undergraduate and graduate students, and special interest to those students gravitating towards the health professions.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 450 - Museum Practicum

This course is concerned with collection, preparation, identification, and curation of biological materials used in the Willard F. Stanley Museum, Herbarium, and the teaching laboratories. The time and accomplishments are to be arranged with the individual student(s) and there may be required evening and weekend field trips. Enrollment is by permission of the instructor and is restricted to department majors.
1.000 – 3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 453 - Basic Hematology
Introduction to the study of blood, its cellular components, and various blood diseases. Laboratory exercises include a variety of manual techniques involved with blood cell counts and determinations.
1.000 Credit Hour

BIOL 457 - Biostatistics
A review of statistical tests frequently used in the biological sciences. Emphasis is placed on understanding experimental design and what statistics can and cannot do. Uses of computer statistical packages are also considered.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 458 - Lab Supervision in Biology
A supervisory experience in teaching of the biology department's laboratories under the guidance of a faculty member. Student experiences may include; preparing materials for the lab, and demonstrating procedures and techniques to students. Note: Students may earn Biology elective credit for only one of BIOL 440/1 or 458.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 461 - Immunology and Serology
Study of the mechanisms of the immune response including cellular basis of immunity and molecular basis of antigen-antibody reactions. Regulation of antibody production and cell-mediated reactivity examined. Current clinical applicability considered in discussion of tumor, transplantation, allergy-related, and autoimmune immunobiology. Several laboratory exercises included involving serological/immunological determinations detecting antigen-antibody interactions. Three lectures.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 465 - Advanced Experimental Biochemistry
State-of-the-art biochemical and molecular techniques are taught within this hands-on, laboratory-based course. Potential topics include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), oligonucleotide synthesis, DNA/protein sequencing and analysis (BLAST, DNASIS), pulse-field gel electrophoresis, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, high performance liquid chronatography (HPLC), immunochemistry, and/or other contemporary techniques.
2.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 466 - Current Issues in Developmental Biology
Course focuses on recent developments in the rapidly expanding field of developmental biology. With the advent of the tools available to molecular biologists, the course will study recent advances in the genetic understanding of various aspects of embryological development and regeneration. The course will present a variety of topics including: fertilization, gastrulation, maternal effect genes, pattern formation, and evolutionary aspects of development. Prerequisite: Junior standing in major.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 468 - Biomembranes
The objectives of this course include: identification of different types of membranes based upon composition, morphology and cellular functions, and examination of experiments which have provided understanding of how membranes function in cells and organisms. Topics include membrane composition, electron microscope techniques, membrane transport, membrane proteins and enzymes, receptors, hormone interaction, cell recognition, secretion, and biogenesis of membranes. BIOL 333 or equivalent, or permission required.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 469 - Eukaryotic Gene Regulation
In depth examination of the ways in which eukaryotic cells regulate their protein composition at the levels of genome replication, transcription, post-transcriptional modifications, and translations. Topics include chromatin structure, transcription factors, and DNA sequence elements, several cell-type specific transcriptional events and how these are regulated, as well as how transcriptional regulation gone awry can cause cancer.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 470 - Hormone Mechanisms
Course will examine the basic physiological, cellular and molecular pathways which regulate metabolism, growth, and neurological activities of organisms, especially mammals. Discussions will follow text information and general models will be supported with primary research literature to show developments from recent experiments.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 472 - Microbial Pathogenesis
Course focuses on the molecular basis of microbial pathogenesis. Through the application of molecular techniques to the study of the microbe-host interaction, scientists are gaining a fundamental understanding of the virulence mechanisms of microbial pathogens. Using primary literature the course will illustrate how the integration of the molecular basis of virulence mechanisms with the clinical aspects of disease has enhanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 475 - Advanced Biochemistry
A continuation of BIOL 333, this course explores biochemical concepts and pathways with an emphasis on problem solving. Cellular control and coordination of biochemical pathways is emphasized in light of an advanced understanding of protein biochemistry. Lecture only.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 490 – Internship

This senior level internship is appropriate for experiences involving significant research or other independent activities in health care, academia, government, industry or other foundations. Students must identify an employer, a work supervisor and a faculty member to oversee the student’s program and evaluation. Course credits are available, with faculty approval. Internships range from full-time to part-time, with or without financial compensation. The student must complete a Learning Contract for Experimental Education, which is available from the Internship Office.
1.000 – 15.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 497 - Biochemistry Seminar II
Students prepare oral presentations based on an assessment of current biochemical research papers. The course will help students to further develop critical reading and scientific communication skills. Faculty from both biology and chemistry participate in the seminar.
1.000 Credit Hours

MEDT 490-491 - Clinical Internship

A yearlong internship performed at a NAACLS accredited hospital program, typically WCA, Rochester General or St. Vincent’s Hospital.   Students wishing to apply to other accredited internship programs may do so upon advisement.

The internship is 30 credits; the basic disciplines of study include:

Clinical Chemistry: Lecture and laboratory sequence involving the study and detection of biochemical components in body fluids. Methodology, theory, disease states, and instrumentation are stressed.

Clinical Microbiology: Lecture and laboratory rotation in which bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses are studied, the emphasis being on bacteria. Biochemical, morphological and serological properties are emphasized.

Hematology/Coagulation: Lecture and laboratory sequence concerned with the study of blood. Theory and techniques dealing with cellular components and coagulation mechanisms of normal and abnormal blood are major topics.

Immunohematology (Blood Bank): Lecture and laboratory rotation dealing with the immunological properties of the blood, especially concerning the various blood groups and transfusion therapy. (Other theories and techniques of basic immunology may be included here or in another category.)

Urinalysis: Lecture and laboratory presentation of normal and abnormal physical, chemical, and cellular properties of urine.

BIOL 501 Biochemistry

Advanced discussion of biological chemistry; chemistry of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, and nucleic acids; bioenergetics; the structure and mechanism of enzyme action; protein biosynthesis; molecular genetics; selected topics in immunochemistry, and biochemical endocrinology.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 502 Methods in Biochemistry

Theory and laboratory experiments demonstrating the techniques and applications of contemporary biochemistry including electrophoresis, chromatography, centrifugation, radioisotope methods, DNA sequencing, enzymology, spectrophotometry and gas chromatography.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 510 Tropical Biology

A lecture and field course on the natural history and ecology of the neotropics. Students examine several terrestrial and marine tropical ecosystems, including lowland rain forests, elfin forests, mangrove communities, and coral reefs. Each student completes a field project and journal. One lecture per week during the semester followed by a two-week field experience in Costa Rica during winter break. Students are responsible for travel expenses.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 517 Comparative Animal Physiology

How animals maintain homeostasis in a non-homeostatic world. After a general introduction to mechanisms of cellular regulation and energetics, discussion will include specific physiological systems (respiratory, cardiovascular, osmoregulatory, etc.) and compare the modes and strategies employed by different animal groups in responding to changes in external environment. Particular attention directed to adaptations to marginal habitats, e.g. marine intertidal, deep sea hydrothermal vents, hot desert.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 519 Genes and Genomes

The course will focus on the study of DNA and genes from the paper by Watson and Crick to the Human Genome Project. The genetic and molecular approaches used to identify genes and the impact of genome study on society and current scientific research will be discussed.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 520 Population and Community Ecology

Reading and discussion of primary literature relating to population and community ecology. Topics include population growth life history patterns, competition, plant-animal interactions, and community organization.
3.000 Credut Hours

BIOL 522 Physiological Ecology

Reading and discussion of primary literature relating to physiological and ecosystem ecology. Topics include resource acquisition, energetics, nutrient cycling, and energy flow.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 524 Aquatic Biology

The course covers the classification and biology of major groups of organisms found in fresh water, characteristics of aquatic habitats, pollution of aquatic environments, and the role of physical and chemical factors in aquatic ecosystems.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 526 Current Environmental Topics

The focus of the course is on global environmental issues. The issues examined have been making the news during the last year and at the time the course is taught. Changes in climate, overpopulation, pollution, conservation, development, genetically modified organisms, invasive species, illegal species trade, etc. are some of the ongoing issues that are covered in the course. The format of the course invites participation, discussion and critical thinking.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 527 Fisheries Science

The course is an overview of ichthyology, fisheries biology, and fisheries conservation. Students will be introduced to the taxonomic diversity of fish, fish adaptations, techniques and models used in the study of fish populations, community interactions, and issues concerning fisheries conservation and management. Special emphasis will be placed on understanding the Great Lakes fisheries.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 534 Animal Behavior

The course will first provide background to the discipline of animal behavior and examine the levels of questioning in this field. The class will discuss the influence of genetics and the environment on behavior (nature vs. nurture). It will magnify its focus to the roots of behavior, the proximate causes of behavior, specifically its neural and hormonal control. The class will examine the cases of bird song, electric fish EODs, shark electroreception, moth hearing and bat echolocation, and then focus on those behaviors that make up the many tasks animals must accomplish to survive and reproduce.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 543 Plant Physiology

Study of the life processes and responses of plants, including water relations and transport, photosynthesis and general metabolism, mineral and organic nutrition, photoperiodic responses and rhythms, growth and differentiation, and plant relationships with the environment. Laboratory includes problems and exercises in whole plant physiology as well as at the molecular level. The laboratory stresses methods rather than results. Two lectures, one laboratory.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 544 Radiation Biology

Lectures on techniques required for application of radioactive isotopes to biological research. Experimental isotope tracer techniques deal with in vitro and in vivo labeling as well as autoradiographic studies. Variety of living systems used.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 547 Evolution

Consideration of the theoretical framework of evolutionary biology and the mechanisms of evolution. Special topics include microevolution, macroevolution and coevolution.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 550-551 Current Concepts in Biology

An in-depth examination of selected areas of biology for interested upper-division students. Topics are determined by faculty and student interests and emphasize methods and recent research developments. Examples of topics currently offered on a rotating basis include: Biomembranes, Molecular Genetics, Cell and Hybridoma Culture, Enzymes, Ethology, Hormone Mechanisms, Bioenergetics, Microbial Genetics, Field Biology, and Advanced Developmental Biology, PCR, DNA Synthesis and Immunology.
1.000 - 3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 557 Biostatistics

Statistical tests frequently used in the biological sciences. Emphasis is placed on understanding what statistics can and cannot do, the meaning of a statistical test, and how to choose an appropriate statistical test. Uses of micro-computer and mainframe statistical packages (SPSS or MINITAB) are also considered.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 564 Mammalogy

Consideration of taxonomy, ecology, and physiology of mammals; world fauna examined although emphasis on local species. Field population studies, collection and preservation of specimens, and studies in physiological adaptations of mammals.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 566 Current Issues in Developmental Biology

Course focuses on recent developments in the rapidly expanding field of developmental biology. With the advent of the tools available to molecular biologists, the course will study recent advances in the genetic understanding of various aspects of embryological development and regeneration. The course will present a variety of topics including: fertilization, gastrulation, maternal effect genes, pattern formation, and evolutionary aspects of development.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 567 Biomembranes

The objectives of this course include: identification of different types of membranes based upon composition, morphology and cellular functions, and examination of experiments which have provided understanding of how membranes function in cells and organisms. Topics include membrane composition, electron microscope techniques, membrane transport, membrane proteins and enzymes, receptors, hormone interaction, cell recognition, secretion, and biogenesis of membranes.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 569 Eukaryotic Gene Regulation

In-depth examination of the ways in which eukaryotic cells regulate their protein composition at the levels of genome replication, transcription, post-transcriptional modifications, and translation. Topics include chromatin structure, transcription factors, and DNA sequence elements, several cell-type specific transcriptional events and how they are regulated, as well as how transcriptional regulation gone awry can cause cancer.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 570 Hormone Mechanisms

The course will examine the basic physiological, cellular and molecular pathways which regulate metabolism, growth, and neurological activities of organisms, especially mammals. Discussions will follow text information and general models will be supported with primary research literature to show developments from recent experiments.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 572 Microbial Pathogenesis

The course focuses on the molecular basis of microbial pathogenesis. Through the application of molecular techniques to the study of the microbe-host interaction, scientists are gaining a fundamental understanding of the virulence mechanisms of microbial pathogens. Using primary literature the course will illustrate how the integration of the molecular basis of virulence mechanisms with the clinical aspects of disease has enhanced understanding of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 573 Animal Communication

The course will first provide a background for the field of animal communication including a discussion of definitions of animal communication. The class will then survey the production, transmission and reception of auditory, visual, and chemical signals. Optimality theory and signal detection theory will be introduced as they apply to animal communication. The class will spend some time on how signals come to be and why they have the design they do (signal evolution), and will investigate signaling in a variety of situations such as between potential mates, other conspecifics, and autocommunication signaling.
3.000 Credit hours

BIOL 600 Seminar

Presentation of detailed study of topic of current interest in the biological literature. Attendance and one seminar presentation required for three semesters of all candidates for the master's degree. Students completing thesis research must present their results orally prior to their scheduled thesis defense.
1.000-3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 601 Seminar

Presentation of detailed study of topic of current interest in the biological literature. Attendance and one seminar presentation required for three semester of all candidates for the master's degree. Students completing thesis research must present their results orally prior to their scheduled thesis defense.
1.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 611 Cell Regulation

Integrated study of regulation at various levels within the cell. Molecular control of cellular activity and its interconnection with biochemistry including regulation of enzyme activity, nucleic acid and protein biosynthesis, metabolic control by hormones, and membrane regulatory functions.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 646 Reproductive Physiology

Treatment of reproductive mechanisms in higher vertebrates; particular attention to mammals. Topics include biology of sex, structure-function relationship in male and female reproductive systems, gametogenesis, gonadal steroids, nongonadal endocrine control mechanisms, cyclic reproductive phenomena, insemination and fertilization, viparity, pregnancy, parturition and lactation, fertility and sterility, and effects of environment and nutrition on reproductive processes.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 650 Special Topics in Biology

Comprehensive reviews of current state of biological investigation for advanced graduate students. Analysis of frontiers of scientific advancement in molecular biology, quantitative ecology, and physiology.
3.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 690 Thesis Research

Directed research culminating in the preparation of a thesis.
1.000-9.000 Credit Hours

BIOL 691 Thesis

Directed research culminating in the preparation of a thesis.
1.000-9.000 Credit Hours


 


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