Communication Disorders and Sciences

Speech Language Services

Children

working with children Common speech and language problems in children:

Articulation disorders are difficulties with speech sound production characterized by substituting one sound for another, leaving sounds out, or distorting sounds. Difficulty in this area can make speech hard to understand.

Language disorders can be broken down into two categories:
  • Receptive language disorders are difficulties with the comprehension of language, including understanding vocabulary, questions and following directions.
  • Expressive language disorders are difficulties with vocabulary usage, sentence formation and the length of sentences used when communicating

Stuttering is difficulty with the rhythm of speech. It is characterized by hesitation, repetition or proglongation of sounds or words during conversation.

Voice disorders are characterized by deviations in pitch, loudness or vocal quality.

Developmental Milestones:
12 months: The child should begin to use single words to name objects, gain attention, or obtain information.

18 months: The child should have a vocabulary of about 50 words and be able to follow one step directions.

2 years: The child should be using two word combinations. He or she should have a vocabulary of about 200 words and be able to follow two step directions. Close family members will understand speech most of the time

3 years: The child should be using 3-4 word sentences. He or she should be able to ask and answer questions, tell stories, and follow more complex directions. Speech should be understood most of the time to people outside of the family.

4-5 years: The child should be using long sentences and able to express himself or herself using a lot of detail. He/she should be understood easily by both children and adults. Difficulty with the productions of "r" and "i" may be common. Grammatical structures are very close to that of an adultÌs speech.

When should a child be evaluated?
  • 1 year: There is very limited use of speech sounds, the child does not try to imitate and generally is not very vocal.
  • 1- 1/2 years: The child has not begun to use single words.
  • 2 years: Single word vocabulary is less then 50 words.
  • 2- 2 1/2 years: Single word vocabulary is fewer then 150 words, and the child has not begun to use two word sentences or the child's speech is very hard to understand.
  • 3 years: Vocabulary is less then 200 words, and the child in not using 3 word sentences or the child's speech is understood only half of the time.
  • 4 years: Vocabulary is less then 600 words, there is little use of simple sentences (3-5 words) or the child's speech is understood less then 80% of the time.

 


Page modified 8/4/14