M A I N * L I N K S

SUNY Fredonia
Division of Arts and Humanities
ENGL/INDS 240: Introduction to African American Literature and Culture
Fall 2008
Section 1: MWF 3-3:50, Fenton 174
Office: Fenton 265; MWF 1-2, Th 3-5, and by appointment; 673-3856
E-mail: simon@fredonia.edu; brucesimon18@yahoo.com
Web site: www.fredonia.edu/department/english/simon/
ANGEL space: https://angel.fredonia.edu/

About the Course Web Site

This web site is designed to help you get as much out of this course as possible--you can use it to find out what reading and writing assignments are due and when, how you will be graded, how to join and use the course ANGEL space, and how to use the world-wide web for research. Please take the time during and after the first week of classes to read this page carefully and to familiarize yourself with the other pages for this course. Please get in the habit of checking back to this web site to keep track of changes to the tentative schedule (see below) and to find advice on papers and projects, as well as to surf the ever-expanding list of links to interesting web pages related to the course. And please contact me any time (see above for my coordinates) if you have ideas about how to improve these pages or the course as a whole. I hope you enjoy taking this course as much as I enjoy teaching it!

I. Course Description

An examination of major works by African American novelists, poets, dramatists, and essayists (along with selected filmmakers and musicians) in terms of the aesthetic, intellectual, and political concerns of their periods and locations. The course is organized into four geographical (rather than historical) units: country, city, nation, world. We will pay careful attention to relationships between works from the various genres, media, and locations. We will repeatedly ask: in what ways do these artists speak to each other? where do their representations consistently come into tension? how do they interact with the concerns of the dominant society around them, and when do they refuse to do so?

ENGL/INDS 240 is part of the core of the minor in African American Studies; you may contact Saundra Liggins (English) for more information about this minor. This course is an elective in the English and English Adolescence Education majors and satisfies Part VIIIB of the College Core Curriculum (CCC).

II. Rationale

In ENGL/INDS 240, as in most courses offered by the English Department, students from a range of majors, minors, and concentrations interact, and the goals of the professional programs are integrated with specific course and general education goals. Achieving these goals (described in Section IV below) will require us to foster academic skills and intellectual habits of reading closely and carefully, thinking critically and creatively, listening actively and attentively, speaking thoughtfully and concisely, and writing clearly and analytically--skills and habits useful to everyone, but of particular importance to future teachers.

III. Textbooks. The textbooks adopted for this course are:

IV. Course Objectives and Outcomes

This course has been approved for Part VIIIB of the CCC. As such, it provides an introduction to two disciplines: on the one hand, you will gain a firm footing in the practice of literary and cultural criticism, and on the other, you will become familiar with humanistic inquiry in the disciplines of American Studies and Black Studies. Specifically, this course is designed to enable students to use a variety of sources and interdisciplinary methods to study American and African American culture and definitions of nation and race; gain an awareness of multiple cultures, subcultures, and values both within America and within black America; examine the ways in class, gender, and ethnicity intersect with and complicate notions of an "American" and "African American" identity; understand the ways in which concepts of American and African American identity have repercussions on other cultures; view events, texts, and representations within a cultural context and in connection to one another; develop an appreciation for historical documents and older literature as connected to contemporary experience; use print and electronic resources to locate and share relevant information; apply a critical reading of culture and texts to their daily lives. To achieve these goals, students will

V. Instructional Methods and Activities

The methods used in the classroom will include lecture, in-class writing, guided discovery, open discussion, cooperative group work, and other discussion-oriented activities.

VI. Evaluation and Grade Assignment

Attendance/Preparation/Participation (10%). Regular attendance and thoughtful participation are crucial to your enjoyment of and success in this course. If there is absolutely no way for you to avoid missing a class, you must contact me ahead of time or soon after your absence, preferably by email. Even more important than showing up on time, of course, is coming to class prepared and focused. I expect you to read what has been assigned for a given date at least once (and some texts each day preferably more than that!), along with your peers' responses to it posted to the course ANGEL space (see below), by the time we begin to discuss it in class. This is a discussion rather than a lecture course, after all; although I will provide some context and background for our reading, the bulk of class time will be spent in small- or large-group discussions and activities. Since it's difficult to make good contributions to discussions about a literary work if you haven't read it carefully or thought about it extensively, how well you budget your time outside of class will to a large degree determine how well you do in this class in general and how well you do on this portion of your course grade in particular.

Your grade for this segment of the course will be based on a combination of your attendance, the quality of your participation in class and online (described below), and your preparation, effort, and improvement over the course of the semester. As there is no final exam in this course, think of my evaluation of your preparation/participation as a different but equally important method of assessing your overall performance in the course. Due to the importance of attendance and participation, more than three unexcused absences will hurt your preparation/participation grade and each non-emergency absence after the fourth will lower your final course grade by a full grade (e.g., with five absences a B+ will become a C+; with seven, it will become an F). Please see Section VIIIB, below, for definitions of excused and emergency absences.

Online Participation (15%). To supplement and prepare for our class discussions and activities, as well as continue them after the end of class, I have created a discussion forum on our course ANGEL space. You should use it to develop your writing and critical thinking skills, demonstrate your engagement with the course material, and consider and respond to others' ideas and readings. For instance, you can

Over the course of the semester, I will keep track of the timing, amount, and quality of your posts to the course discussion board, including the quality of the ensuing online discussions initiated by them; 0-4 posts will earn you a zero, 5-9 posts an F, 10-14 a D, 15-19 a C, 20-24 a B, and 25+ an A on this segment of your final grade. For further information on the course ANGEL space discussion board, including more specific requirements and extensive advice, go to http://www.fredonia.edu/department/english/simon/itaalc5/op.htm.

Critical Essay (25%). I will provide detailed information and advice on the 3-to-5-page critical essay at http://www.fredonia.edu/department/english/simon/itaalc5/ce.htm.

Your grade for this segment of the course will be determined by the coherence and validity of the paper's arguments, the effectiveness of the paper's structure in conveying your ideas and convincing your audience, and the quality of the paper's prose (including grammar, syntax, and punctuation).

Group Research Project (20%). I will provide detailed information and advice on this 3-4 person project at http://www.fredonia.edu/department/english/simon/itaalc5/gp.htm.

Final Project (30%). I will provide detailed information and advice on the 7-to-10-page final project later in the semester elsewhere on the course web site at http://www.fredonia.edu/department/english/simon/itaalc5/frp.htm.

B. Grading. All work during the semester will be graded on a letter basis (A=outstanding, B=good, C=average, D=bad, E=awful) and converted into a number for purposes of calculating final grades. I use the following conversion system (the number in parentheses is the "typical" or "normal" conversion, but any number in the range may be assigned to a given letter grade):

A+=97-100 (98); A=93-96.99 (95); A-=90-92.99 (91); B+=87-89.99 (88); B=83-86.99 (85); B-=80-82.99 (81); C+=77-79.99 (78); C=73-76.99 (75); C-=70-72.99 (71); D+=67-69.99 (68); D=63-66.99 (65); D-=60-62.99 (61); E=0-59.99 (55)

Your final grade is determined by converting the weighted numerical average of the above assignments into a letter grade, according to the above scale.

C. Portfolio. English and English Adolescence Education majors should be aware of the English department's guidelines for ongoing portfolio submissions.

VII. Bibliography.

A. Contemporary References

B. Classic References

C. Key Journals

VIII. Course Schedule and Policies

A. Tentative Course Schedule. The following course schedule is subject to revision--please refer here regularly for updates to this schedule, notes on the texts, and suggestions for further reading. You should read the introductory essay to each unit well before beginning it (click on the links in the titles of each unit's heading). These essays will help you see why it is crucial to be aware that each day's reading assignment is designed to offer multiple ways of comparing and contrasting the readings--why it is crucial for you to be an active, engaged, critical reader in this course. Rather than giving equal attention to all texts for a given day, you should be looking for interesting relations between them and focusing in on the texts and relations that you find most significant. I will expect you to gain familiarity with all the readings but to choose at least a couple each day that you have analyzed particularly carefully. Scanning the biographical headnotes and bibliographical endnotes in the Norton, referring back to the Norton's timeline (pp. 2695-2705), and using the links page on the course web site and Resources area on the course ANGEL space to gain further insights into the readings can help you orient yourself and read more critically. Please see me at the earliest sign of a problem if you want individualized advice on how to handle the reading load in the course. (Key: NA=The Norton Anthology of African American Literature [2nd ed.])

Tradition, Culture, Race, Identity

Intros and Overviews

M 8/25 Introductions; Course Overview

W 8/27 Henry Louis Gates, Jr., and Nellie McKay, "Introduction: Talking Books" [NA xxxvii-xlvii]; 1773: Phillis Wheatley, "To Maecenas" [NA 217-218]; 1895: Frances E.W. Harper, "Songs for the People" [NA 503-504]; 1899: Paul Laurence Dunbar, "Sympathy" [NA 922]; 1908: James Weldon Johnson, "O Black and Unknown Bards" [NA 794-795]; 1921, 1930: Langston Hughes, "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" [NA 1291]; 1925: Countee Cullen, "Heritage" [NA 1347-1350] and Marita Bonner, "On Being Young--a Woman--and Colored" [NA 1244-1247]; 1928: Zora Neale Hurston, "How It Feels to Be Colored Me" [NA 1030-1033]

F 8/29 1937: Margaret Walker, "For My People" [NA 1619-1620]; 1945: Gwendolyn Brooks, "kitchenette building" [NA 1625]; 1951: Langston Hughes, "Harlem" [NA 1308-1309]; 1968: Etheridge Knight, "The Idea of Ancestry" [NA 1908-1909] and Nikki Giovanni, "Nikki-Rosa" [NA 2098]; 1978: Maya Angelou, "Still I Rise" [NA 2156-2157]; 1982: Amiri Baraka, "Wailers" [NA 1945-1946]




W 9/3 Robert O'Meally, "Introduction: The Vernacular Tradition" [NA 3-8]; 1921: James Weldon Johnson, Preface to The Book of American Negro Poetry [NA 883-905]; 1934: Zora Neale Hurston, "Characteristics of Negro Expression" [NA 1041-1053]

F 9/5 1899: Charles Chesnutt, "The Goophered Grapevine" [NA 604-612]; 1900: James Weldon Johnson, "Sence You Went Away" [NA 793]; 1895-1903: Paul Laurence Dunbar, "An Ante-Bellum Sermon," "When Malindy Sings," "We Wear the Mask," "A Cabin Tale," "Philosophy," and "The Poet" [NA 912-914, 916-917, 918-921, 925, 927]; 1901, 1912: James Carrothers, "Me 'n' Dunbar" and "Paul Laurence Dunbar" [NA 788-789]

M 9/8 1922, 1926: Langston Hughes, "Mother to Son," "Homesick Blues," and "Po' Boy Blues" [NA 1292, 1296-1297]; 1927-1931: Sterling Brown, "Odyssey of Big Boy," "Long Gone," "Southern Road," and "Tin Roof Blues" [NA 1248-1252, 1257-1258]; 1937: Zora Neale Hurston, from Their Eyes Were Watching God [NA 1063-1070]


W 9/10 William Andrews, "Introduction: The Literature of Slavery and Freedom" [NA 151-162]; 1845: Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life, Preface, Chapters I-IV [NA 387-406]; 1861: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Preface, Chapters I, II, V [NA 280-289]; 1987: Toni Morrison, "The Site of Memory" [NA 2290-2299]

F 9/12 1845: Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life, Chapters V-IX [NA 406-421]; 1861: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Chapters X, XIV [NA 289-295]

M 9/15 1845: Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life, Chapter X [NA 421-440]; 1861: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Chapters XVII, XXI, XXIX [NA 295-305]


W 9/17 1845: Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life, Chapter XI-Appendix [NA 440-452]; 1861: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Chapters XXXIX-XLI [NA 306-315]

F 9/19 Frances Smith Foster and Richard Yarborough, "Introduction: Literature of the Reconstruction to the New Negro Renaissance, 1865-1919" [NA 541-554]; 1895: Ida B. Wells, from "A Red Record" [NA 676-686]; 1903: Paul Laurence Dunbar, "The Haunted Oak" [NA 923-924]; 1906: W.E.B. Du Bois, "A Litany of Atlanta" [NA 689-691]; 1916: James Weldon Johnson, "Brothers" [NA 798-800]; 1919: Claude McKay, "If We Must Die" [NA 1007]; 1923: Jean Toomer, "Portrait in Georgia" and "Blood-Burning Moon" [NA 1186-1191]; 1927: Langston Hughes, "Song for a Dark Girl" [NA 1299]

M 9/22 1928: Nella Larsen, Quicksand, Chapters 1-4 [NA 1086-1101]; 1932, 1980: Sterling Brown, "Sam Smiley" and "Old Lem" [NA 1263-1266]; 1938: Richard Wright, "Long Black Song" [NA 1419-1436]; 1965: James Baldwin, "Going to Meet the Man" [NA 1750-1761]; 1988: August Wilson, Joe Turner's Come and Gone [NA 2459-2504]

W 9/24 1952: Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man, Prologue to Ch. 2 (3-70); NOTE: class will end early today to accommodate those attending the Maytum Convocation Lecture by Marian Wright Edelman. For extra credit, those who attend the lecture can turn in their ticket and post their reactions to the course ANGEL space's discussion forum, focusing on how they connect the lecture and the course.

F 9/26 1952: Ellison, Invisible Man, Ch. 3-7 (71-161)


Segregation I

M 9/29 1901: Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery, Chapter XIV [NA 594-602]; 1903: W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, Chapter III [NA 699-708]; 1912: James Weldon Johnson, The Autobiography of an ex-Coloured Man, Chapters I-XI [NA 803-883]; 1929: Jessie Redmon Fauset, Plum Bun: A Novel without a Moral, Chapters I-II [NA 976-983]

W 10/1 1937, 1942, 1945: Richard Wright, "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow, an Autobiographical Sketch," "The Man Who Lived Underground," and Black Boy, Chapter XVI [NA 1411-1419, 1436-1470, 1477-1487]

F 10/3 1945, 1952: Ralph Ellison, "Richard Wright's Blues" [NA 1538-1555] and Invisible Man, Ch. 8-12 (162-260)

Renaissance I

M 10/6 Arnold Rampersad, "Introduction: Harlem Renaissance, 1919-1940" [NA 953-962]; 1925: Alain Locke, "The New Negro" [NA 984-993]; 1926: W.E.B. Du Bois, "Criteria of Negro Art" [NA 777-784]

W 10/8 1927: Rudolph Fisher, "The Caucasian Storms Harlem" [NA 1236-1243]; 1940: Langston Hughes, from The Big Sea [NA 1325-1339]


M 10/13 1926: George Schuyler, "The Negro-Art Hokum" [NA 1221-1223] and Langston Hughes, "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" [NA 1311-1314]; 1932: Wallace Thurman, Infants of the Spring, Chapter XXI [NA 1270-1278]

Renaissance II

W 10/15 1925: Rudolph Fisher, "The City of Refuge" [NA 1225-1236]; 1928: Nella Larsen, Quicksand, Chapters 5-11 [NA 1102-1123]; 1934: Langston Hughes, "The Blues I'm Playing" [NA 1315-1325]

F 10/17 1918: Claude McKay, "Harlem Shadows" [NA 1006] and Georgia Douglas Johnson, "The Heart of a Woman" [NA 994]; 1923, 1925: Langston Hughes, "Jazzonia" and "The Weary Blues" [NA 1293-1295]; 1925: Angelina Weld Grimke, "The Black Finger" [NA 969]; 1927: Helene Johnson, "Sonnet to a Negro in Harlem" [NA 1353] and Gwendolyn Bennett, "To a Dark Girl" [NA 1268]

M 10/20 1955: James Baldwin, "Notes of a Native Son" [NA 1713-1727]; 1973: Stevie Wonder, "Living for the City" [NA 76-77]; 1995: Samuel Delany, from Atlantis: Model 1924 [NA 2393-2411]

Segregation II

W 10/22 Deborah McDowell and Hortense Spillers, "Introduction: Realism, Naturalism, Modernism, 1940-1960" [NA 1355-1368]; 1952: Ellison, Invisible Man, Ch. 13 (261-295); 1953: Gwendolyn Brooks, Maud Martha [NA 1649-1696]

F 10/24 1946: Ann Petry, from The Street [NA 1504-1516]; 1952: Ellison, Invisible Man, Ch. 14 (296-317); 1959: Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun [NA 1771-1830]


Color Lines I

M 10/27 1903: W.E.B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, "The Forethought," Chapters I, XIII, XIV, "The After-Thought" [NA 692-699, 748-766]

W 10/29 1952: Ellison, Invisible Man, Ch. 15-17 (318-382)

F 10/31 1952: Ellison, Invisible Man, Ch. 18-19 (383-422)

Black America

M 11/3 1773, 1776: Phillis Wheatley, "To the Right Honourable William, Earl of Dartmouth" and "To His Excellency General Washington" [NA 221-222, 225-226]; 1829: David Walker, from Appeal [NA 228-238]; 1831, 1835: Maria Stewart, "Religion and the Pure Principles of Morality" and "Lecture" [NA 251-255]; 1848: Henry Highland Garnet, "An Address to the Slaves of North America" [NA 346-352]; 1852: Frederick Douglass, from "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?" [NA 462-473]; 1853: James Whitfield, "America" [NA 484-487]

W 11/5 1903: Paul Laurence Dunbar, "The Fourth of July and Race Outrages" [NA 927-928]; 1913: James Weldon Johnson, "Fifty Years" [NA 796-798]; 1921: Claude McKay, "America" [NA 1008]; 1925: Langston Hughes, "I, Too" [NA 1295]; 1944: Melvin Tolson, "Dark Symphony" [NA 1371-1374]; 1958: Ralph Ellison, "Change the Joke and Slip the Yoke" [NA 1570-1578]

F 11/7 1963, 1964: Martin Luther King, Jr., "Letter from Birmingham Jail" [NA 1896-1908]; 1973: Leon Forrest, from There Is a Tree More Ancient than Eden [NA 2354-2376]; 1986: Essex Hemphill, from Conditions, XXI and XXIV [NA 2645-2646, 2647-2648]

Black Arts

M 11/10 Houston Baker, "Introduction: The Black Arts Movement, 1960-1975" [NA 1831-1850]; 1968: Hoyt Fuller, "Towards a Black Aesthetic" [NA 1853-1859], Larry Neal, "The Black Arts Movement" [NA 2039-2050], and Maulana Karenga, "Black Art: Mute Matter Given Force and Function" [NA 2086-2090]; 1971: Addison Gayle, Introduction to The Black Aesthetic [NA 1912-1918]; 1972: Ishmael Reed, "Neo-HooDoo Manifesto" [NA 2062-2066]

W 11/12 1960-1981: Gwendolyn Brooks, poems from "Malcolm X" to "when you have forgotten Sunday: the love story" [NA 1640-1649]; 1967-1969: Haki R. Madhubuti, all poems [NA 2091-2096]; 1968: Nikki Giovanni, all poems [NA 2096-2101] and June Jordan, "In Memoriam: Martin Luther King, Jr." [NA 2017-2018]; 1969: Mari Evans, "Status Symbol" and "I Am a Black Woman" [NA 1851-1852], Carolyn Rodgers, "Jesus Was Crucified" and "It Is Deep" [NA 2123-2126], and Amiri Baraka, poems from "A Poem for Black Hearts" to "Black Art" [NA 1881-1884]; 1969-1974: Sonia Sanchez, all poems [NA 1964-1967]; 1972-1980: Lucille Clifton, "the lost baby poem," "malcolm," and "homage to my hips" [NA 2032-2033]; 1978: Ntozake Shange, "Nappy Edges" [NA 2556-2557]

F 11/14 1970: James Alan McPherson, "A Solo Song: For Doc" [NA 2101-2117]; 1972: Ishmael Reed, "Railroad Bill, a Conjure Man" [NA 2053-2058]; 1984: John Edgar Wideman, from Brothers and Keepers [NA 2379-2386]

Color Lines II

M 11/17 1952: Ellison, Invisible Man, Ch. 20-22 (423-478); Martin Luther King, Jr., "I Have a Dream" (28 August 1963) [NA 107-109]

W 11/19 1952: Ellison, Invisible Man, Ch. 23-24 (479-534); Malcolm X, The Ballot or the Bullet (12 April 1964) [NA 116-128]

Th 11/20 proposal for FINAL RESEARCH PROJECT due on ANGEL discussion board by 11:30 pm [consider turning it in much earlier in the semester, however]

F 11/21 1952: Ellison, Invisible Man, Ch. 25-Epilogue (535-581); Barack Obama, "A More Perfect Union" (18 March 2008)



Diaspora and Empire

M 12/1 1852: Martin Delany, from The Condition, Elevation, Emigration and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States [NA 258-278]; 1962: Robert Hayden, "Middle Passage" [NA 1520-1524]; CRITICAL ESSAY due in ANGEL drop box by 11:30 pm

W 12/3 1923: Marcus Garvey, "Africa for the Africans" and "The Future as I See It" [NA 997-1003]; 1953: Melvin Tolson, from Libretto for the Republic of Liberia [NA 1375-1380]

F 12/5 1964: Malcolm X, from The Autobiography of Malcolm X [NA 1860-1876]; Jamaica Kincaid, A Small Place

Global Politics

M 12/8 1928: Nella Larsen, Quicksand, Chapters 12-17 [NA 1123-1145]; 1953: James Baldwin, "Stranger in the Village" [NA 1705-1713]; 1967: John A. Williams, from The Man Who Cried I Am [NA 1876-1895]

W 12/10 Barbara Christian and Cheryl Wall, "Introduction: Literature since 1975" [NA 2127-2139]; 1980: June Jordan, "Poem About My Rights" [NA 2019-2021]; 1983: Ntozake Shange, "Bocas: A Daughter's Geography" [NA 2557-2559] and Rita Dove, "Parsley" [NA 2614-2616]; 1985: Michelle Cliff, "Within the Veil" [NA 2505-2508]; 2000: June Jordan, from Soldier: A Poet's Childhood [NA 2027-2030]

F 12/12 Course Wrap Up

The End

F 12/19 FINAL RESEARCH PROJECT due no later than 11 pm in dropbox on course ANGEL space

B. Class Policies

1. Attendance. As stated in Section VI above, barring emergencies each absence after the fourth will lower your final course grade by a full grade. Be aware that absences due to emergencies are the only absences that will not be counted toward your total for the semester. Emergencies include but are not limited to death in the family, hospitalization or serious illness, and natural disasters; scheduled and unavoidable school-sponsored events (games, meets, performances, etc.) are also counted as emergencies for the purpose of this attendance policy. Besides emergencies, the only other absences that won't affect your participation/preparation grade are excused absences. Please notify the instructor over email, in advance if possible and, if not, as soon after the absence as possible, if you wish an absence to be considered as an emergency or excused absence; the decision will be made at the instructor's discretion.

2. Online Participation. Please familiarize yourself with the college's "Computer and Network Usage Policy" (College Catalog 2007-2009, pp. 240-247) and check with your instructor first before posting something to the course ANGEL space that is not directly related to the course.

3. Late Assignments. Online posts that are not well-timed with the course material and fail to spark other students' interest and responses will not count the same as well-timed posts or posts that do inspire further discussion. Late critical essays and final research projects will not be accepted or graded. Only students who ask for an extension at least two days before the due date of any written project will be granted an extension; asking for an extension on the final project means that your final grade for the semester will be an incomplete (I), and that you must turn in your final project before the end of the following semester so that the I becomes a grade other than an F.

4. Plagiarism and Academic Integrity. To plagiarize is "to steal and pass off as one's own the ideas or words of another" (Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary). SUNY Fredonia strongly condemns plagiarism and takes severe action against those who plagiarize. Disciplinary action may extend to suspension from privileges or expulsion from college. Please familiarize yourself with the college's "Academic Integrity Policy" (College Catalog 2007-2009, pp. 236-239, see also p. 222) and check with your instructor if you have any questions about it.

5. Cell Phones. Please turn them off before you enter the class. If you forget and your phone rings, I'll be holding it the rest of the class.

M A I N * L I N K S

ENGL 240: Introduction to African American Literature and Culture, Fall 2008
Created: 8/27/08 1:00 pm
Last modified: 11/7/08 1:58 pm
See http://www.fredonia.edu/department/english/simon/engl240s05/ for the Spring 2005 version of this course, www.fredonia.edu/department/english/simon/engl240f03/ for the Fall 2003 version, www.fredonia.edu/department/english/simon/engl240/ for the Spring 2001 version, and www.fredonia.edu/department/english/simon/en240/ for the Fall 1999 version.