Wellness - April 2009
April is National STD Awareness Month
Welcome to the April 2009 issue of the Health Matters Newsletter. The Health Matters
Newsletter is published on a monthly basis on the Health Center home page, and is
linked to the weekly Campus Report. The purpose of the newsletter is to share information
regarding pertinent medical issues with students, faculty and staff here at SUNY
Fredonia. This month's topic is on Sexually Transmitted Disease.
The term sexually transmitted disease is used to cover the more than 25 - 30 infectious
organisms that are spread through sexual contact. These infections are most easily
spread by vaginal or anal intercourse, and sometimes by oral sex. Some STDs can also
be spread through blood, particularly among intravenous (IV) drug users who may be
sharing drug equipment such as needles or syringes.
Key facts about STDs
-STDs affect men and women of all backgrounds and economic levels. They are most
common in people younger than 25 years of age.
-The number of people affected by STDs is rising. Sexually active people today are
more likely to have multiple sex partners during their lifetime, putting them at higher
risk for STDs.
Most people with STDs have no symptoms, and subsequently go without treatment. This
can lead to major health issues such as infertility, permanent brain damage, heart
disease, cancer and even death.
What are some Common Symptoms of STDs ?
-Discharge from the vagina or penis
-Burning with urination
-Rash, bumps, blisters, or sores in the genital area that may or may not be painful.
Where do I go for STD screening and treatment?
Many local and county health departments have clinics where you can get tested and
treated for an STD. Some clinics are free, at others, you may have to pay to get
STD testing and treatment.
Your doctor or health care provider may also do STD testing and treatment. You should
see your doctor or health care provider right away if you have symptoms of an STD
or suspect that you might have been contracted an STD from an individual that you
have been sexually active with. If you do not have a doctor or health care provider,
and need to get tested right away, go to a local urgent care center, walk in clinic
or hospital emergency room.
How do I prevent from getting an STD?
The best way to prevent STDs is to avoid sexual contact. This includes not have vaginal
sex, anal sex, or oral sex. If you decide to become sexually active, here are some
steps that you should take to reduce your risk of becoming infected with an STD:
-Delay having sexual relations as long as possible. The younger you are when you
begin having sex, the more likely it is that you will develop an STD.
-Have a mutually monogamous sexual relationship with an uninfected partner.
-Practice safe sex. Always use latex or polyurethane condoms during any sexual contact.
Using condoms reduces the risk of infection for some STDs but does not provide full
protection against genital warts, syphilis and HIV.
Are there any websites that will give me information on a particular STD?
National STD Hotline: (800) 227-8922
National AIDS Hotline: (800) 342-AIDS
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention STD Hotline (800)227-8922
What about Human Papillomavirus (HPV)?
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections
affecting both male and females in the the United States. Some strains of HPV are
responsible for warts on the hands and feet, and other strains are responsible for
warts on the penis, scrotum, vulva, vagina, anus, rectum, urethra, cervix and mouth.
HPV is spread through skin - to - skin contact during sexual activity.
Research has shown that 99.7% of cervical cancers are caused by the HPV infection.
There are 120 different types of HPV of which 35 are linked to infection of the genital
tract. Genital HPV types are divided into low-risk and high-risk types based on their
potential to cause cervical and other genital tract cancers.
It is estimated that 20 million people in the United States are currently infected
with HPV and over 6 million new HPV infections are diagnosed each year. Based on
these national estimates, over 50% of sexually active men and women will acquire HPV
infection at some point in their lives.
Most genital HPV infections are transient, asymptomatic, and clinically unrecognizable.
The majority of infections will clear without medical intervention within two years
of infection . Recurrence or reinfection with the same or a different subtype of
HPV can occur, consequently sex partners of infected patients should be evaluated
for the HPV infection.
How is HPV transmitted?
HPV is a contagious sexually transmitted virus and can be transmitted through sexual
activity that does not necessarily involve intercourse, but only skin - to - skin
and mucous membrane contact. HPV is difficult to identify and avoid in people who
are sexually active because it is often not possible to see lesions.
How do I know if I have HPV?
Because HPV may not show any signs or symptoms, you probably won't know you have it.
Most women are diagnosed with HPV as a result of abnormal Pap tests. A Pap test
(also known as a Pap smear) is part of a gynecological exam and helps detect abnormal
cells in the lining of the cervix before they have a chance to become precancers or
Many cervical precancers (changes that could lead to cancer) are related to HPV and
can be treated successfully if detected early. That's why early detection is so important.
What happens if I get HPV?
In most people , the body's defenses are enough to clear HPV. If not cleared by the
body, some HPV types cause genital warts. Other types cause abnormal changes in the
cells lining the cervix that can lead to precancers and even turn into cervical cancer
later in life. If the abnormalities are mild, the health care professional may choose
to closely monitor them. If the abnormalities are more severe, removing these cells
can almost always prevent cervical cancer from developing in the future.
Methods commonly used to treat abnormal cervical cells include freezing, removing
them using an electrical instrument, and conventional surgery. The treatment may have
to be repeated if the abnormal cells reappear.
How can HPV infection be prevented?
There are two ways in which HPV can be prevented.
1) Abstinence -- HPV can be spread during sexual activity with skin to skin contact
other than vaginal, rectal, or intercourse.
2) Monogamy -- People who have never had sexual activity with anyone else.
What about the HPV vaccine?
The FDA has approved a vaccine that will prevent 7 out of 10 cases of cervical cancer
and 9 out of 10 cases of genital warts. In addition, this vaccine also will significantly
reduce the number of false positive Pap tests, and thus reduce the number of costly
and potentially unnecessary diagnostic procedures performed on women.
Who should receive the HPV vaccine?
The Center of Disease Control (CDC) has recommended that females between the ages
of 11 and 26 receive the HPV vaccination, whether they are sexually active or not.
The best time to receive the vaccine is before becoming sexually active. But the
CDC recommends that women under the age of 26, who are already sexually active still
get the vaccine because they will still benefit from some protection.
How is the vaccine given?
Merck, one of the manufactures of the HPV vaccine, Gardasil, recommends three doses
of the vaccine over a six month time period; an initial dose followed by doses at 2
months and then again at 6 months.
Where can someone get the vaccine?
Discuss this with your health care provider to see if they have the HPV vaccine. If
you are uninsured, or unable to afford the costs of the vaccine, contact your local
health department or a community health center in your area to see if they are offering
the vaccine at a low or no cost.
Are there any side effects of the vaccine?
The vaccine is very safe and has been tested on thousands of women from all over the
world. Through these clinical trails, there have not been any serious adverse side
effects shown. Participants in the studies complained of minor skin irritation and
pain at the site of infection. There were found to be occasional headaches for a
few days after injection. These symptoms are self limiting and subside on their own
without additional treatment.
Do Women need to continue to get Pap tests after the vaccination?
Yes. Gardasil only protects against the two types of HPV that cause 7 out of 10 cases
of cervical cancer. Additionally, it is currently unknown how long the vaccine will
protect against HPV, so it is important to see your health care professional for
continue Pap screening.
The American Cancer Society recommends:
- All women should begin cervical cancer screening about three years after they begin
having vaginal intercourse, but no later than when they are 21 years old. Screening
should be done every year with the regular Pap test or every two years using the newer
liquid-based Pap test.
- Beginning at age 30, women who have had three normal Pap test results in a row may
get screened every two to three years with either the regular or newer liquid based
Pap test. Women who have certain risk factors such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure
before birth, HIV infection, or a weakened immune system due to organ transplant,
chemotherapy, or chronic steroid use should continue to be screened annually.