Robert Jackson presents an argument at the Nuremberg War Trials

Sixty Years After the Nuremberg Trials: Crimes Against Humanity and Peace - September 26-29, 2005 at Chautauqua Institution

Panelist Bios

Wanda Akin WANDA M. AKIN, formerly the Managing Attorney for Chubb & Son, Inc.'s, New Jersey House Counsel law firm, Scanlon & Akin, and a Senior Trial Attorney and Of Counsel to Podvey, Sachs, Meanor, Catenacci, Hildner & Cocoziello, now maintains her solo practice known as Wanda M. Akin, Attorney at Law in Newark, NJ and is an Adjunct Professor at Seton Hall University School of Law and at Seton Hall University's John C. Whitehead School of Diplomacy And International Relations. She has over 22 years of experience as a trial lawyer in a wide variety of types of cases including criminal defense (in US and International Courts), complex product liability, property claims, construction accident litigation, catastrophic personal injury, employment/labor, trademark and copyright, and other complex litigation. She has been trial counsel in numerous cases in New Jersey State Courts and Federal Courts, New York State and Federal Courts, Maryland State Courts, and in many other Federal Court actions throughout the United States. She served as co-counsel, with her husband, Raymond M. Brown, to an Accused at the UN backed Special Court for Sierra Leone. She is a member of the New Jersey Supreme Court's Committee on the Rules of Evidence, for 18 years was a Trustee of the Trial Attorneys of New Jersey, formerly a Master in the Seton Hall Law School Alumni Association Inn of Court and served as a Presidential Appointee to the New Jersey State Bar Association's Committee on Judicial Administration. In 1999 she served as the President of the Seton Hall Law School Alumni Association.
Ms. Akin co-taught with Raymond M. Brown International Criminal Law in the Seton Hall Law/American University In Cairo summer program in Cairo, Egypt during the summers of 1998, '99 and '00 and International Criminal Law (Winter/Spring 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 and 2005) and Peacemaking and Peacekeeping In Contemporary World (Winter/Spring 2005) at the Seton Hall University John C. Whitehead School of Diplomacy And International Relations. She teaches Criminal Trial Practice at Seton Hall Law School and has lectured and presented widely in the areas of trial advocacy, international law, media and persuasion, publishing/literary ventures and criminal trial preparation to lawyers, students, bar groups and to a wide variety of businesses and other citizens on various topics.
Ms. Akin is also a periodic guest commentator on Court TV, MS-NBC, FOX News Channel's In Depth and Fox On Family, CNBC's Rivera Live, CNN's Talk Back Live and NJN (New Jersey Network); UPN 9 News and is CN8 It's Your Call's (Comcast) Legal, Media and Political Observer. She covered the delivery of the acquittal of O.J. Simpson for America's Talking and discussed the reaction of African American Women to the verdict on Rivera Live. In February 1997 Ms. Akin was again called upon by the media to comment on the verdict in the Simpson civil case. For CN8 It's Your Call, Wanda made numerous appearances on the matter of the Impeachment of President Clinton. She was MS-NBC's political commentator during the 2000 Republican and Democratic National Conventions and the 2000 Presidential Election. She is a frequent panelist/lecturer and seminar producer on issues concerning the trial bar and in particular, International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. Ms. Akin organized and chaired the Chicago '96 Symposium: Addressing the African American Agenda where well known African American authors debated the African American Agenda before the start of the Democratic National Convention. Wanda is also counsel to three publishing houses as well as authors and writers in literary matters. She has appeared on TODAY, Good Morning America, Larry King Live, Entertainment Tonight and NewsChannel 4 with respect to cases and with clients on literary matters. Ms. Akin has appeared as a panelist on Inside The Law, a public affairs television show aired on PBS stations nationally, and as a co-producer/presenter for Inside The Law with Raymond M. Brown, she will bring Judging Nuremberg: The Laws, The Rallies, The Trials-Returning to Courtroom 600 On The 60th Anniversary Of The Nuremberg Trials, from Nuremberg, Germany to American viewers during the 2005-2006 Inside The Law season.

Clifford Bob CLIFFORD BOB, assistant professor of political science at Duquesne University, is author of The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media, and International Activism, Cambridge Studies in Contentious Politics (Cambridge University Press, 2005). The book asks why certain conflicts in the developing world become international causes célèbres, while others do not--in the process expanding dominant views of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international activism. Currently his research interests include the limits of moral "shaming" as a tool of international persuasion; the growth of a conservative backlash against NGO activism; and the ways in which aggrieved groups seek to create "new" human rights issues. His Jackson Symposium paper, a new research area for him, asks "What Price Justice?" It examines tradeoffs between international war crimes prosecutions and peace settlements in conflict-ridden countries.
In addition to his book, he has published in Foreign Policy (cover article, March/April 2002), American Journal of International Law, Social Problems, International Politics, Journal of Human Rights, and PS: Political Science & Politics, as well as various edited volumes. His op-ed articles have appeared in such newspapers as the Los Angeles Times, Sidney Morning Herald, Times Picayune, and Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Dr. Bob has won grants and fellowships from United States Institute of Peace, Social Science Research Council/American Council of Learned Societies, Smith Richardson Foundation (Junior Faculty Fellowship in International Security/Foreign Policy), Albert Einstein Institution, and John F. Kennedy School of Government Human Rights Initiative. A native of Jamestown, NY, he holds a Ph. D. from MIT, a J. D. from NYU, and a B. A. from Harvard.

Raymond Brown RAYMOND M. BROWN is a trial lawyer, teacher and legal journalist. He is a partner, with his father in the law firm of Brown and Brown, a Visiting Professor and Research Scholar at Seton Hall University Law School, and Host of the Emmy Award winning New Jersey Network Program "Due Process." He also hosts the nationally syndicated public television program "Inside the Law" and serves as a Legal Analyst for MSNBC. He is a writer for legal and general interest publications and lecturer who has appeared in 25 states and several foreign countries.
Brown is a member of the New Jersey and New York Bars and has handled a wide variety of criminal and civil matters representing individuals and corporations. He has appeared in high profile trials including the 9 month trial of former Labor Secretary Raymond J. Donovan. He has appeared in courts in 12 states and conducted investigations throughout the US and in Kenya, El Salvador, Cayman Islands, Switzerland, Bahamas, and the United Kingdom. He is a Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers who has served on New Jersey Supreme Court Committees.
Brown has taught International Criminal Law in the Seton Hall/American University Program at Cairo, Egypt and at Seton Hall University Schools of Law and of Diplomacy and International Relations. He has spoken on over 200 occasions to criminal and civil lawyers, law enforcement personnel and judges, students and a variety of citizen. His subjects have included trial advocacy, ethics, race and the criminal justice system, human rights and international law, the art of persuasion, and educational and drug policy.
As the Host of NJN's Due Process, he has examined many legal issues affecting New Jersey and has been a Telly Award Finalist and received 6 Emmy Awards as well as the Lincoln University "Unity Award" for Public Affairs/Social Issues Reporting. In his first year as Host of "Inside the Law" he covered several aspects of international criminal law.
Brown served for four years as an anchor at Court TV covering trials, appeals and impeachment hearings. In coverage of the proceedings of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia he reported from the Hague and anchored "War Crimes on Trial," which also anticipated the trials of the International Tribunal for Rwanda. He also hosted the program "On Appeal".
Brown served as Guest Host on Tavis Smiley's BET-Tonight and has moderated a series of symposia telecast on C-Span reflecting African-American thought on a variety of policy issues, the most recent of which focused on the consequences of "9-11." He has also been a guest on many television and radio programs including ABC's World News Tonight Rivera Live, and the BBC. He also served as an analyst on's Webcast from the Republican and Democratic National Conventions in August 2000 (Brown has also managed County and City wide political campaigns in New Jersey).

Alberto CostiALBERTO COSTI is a Senior Lecturer in international law at Victoria University School of Law in Wellington, New Zealand, which he joined in 2000. Professor Costi obtained his LL.B. from the Faculty of Law of the Université de Montréal in 1987 and clerked in 1988-1989 for the Honorable Mr. Justice Antonio Lamer (as he was then) at the Supreme Court of Canada. He also holds a Diploma of Advanced European Legal Studies from the College of Europe in Bruges (Belgium) and a Masters of Law (LL.M.) from Harvard Law School.
Formerly Lecturer in Law at Keele University in Great Britain (1994-1996) and Assistant Professor of Law at the Central European University in Budapest (1996-2000), he has acted as a Visiting Professor in Canada, the United States, Montenegro and Kyrgyzstan and was a visiting fellow at St Antony's College, Oxford, in 1998-1999. He has also provided advice to a number of governments on international law and European Union law issues.
His research and teaching interests relate to public international law and comparative law, including international humanitarian law, use of force, the law of international organizations and European Union law, areas in which he has published book chapters and journal articles, spoken at numerous international conferences and commented in the media and before parliamentary committees. Ongoing projects include the publication of the first ever textbook of international law from a New Zealand perspective (co-authored) and a series of articles on the role of international hybrid tribunals in the prosecution of international crimes.
Professor Costi currently serves on the editorial board of four academic journals, including the New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law, for which he acts as the Editor-in-Chief. He also sits on the External Advisory Board of the National Centre for Research on Europe (University of Canterbury, New Zealand) and is the Vice-President of the New Zealand Association for Comparative Law.

Lawrence DouglasLAWRENCE DOUGLAS joined the Amherst faculty in 1990. He holds degrees from Brown (A.B.), Columbia (M.A.), and Yale Law School (J.D.). He is the author of The Memory of Judgment: Making Law and History in the Trials of the Holocaust (Yale University Press, 2001), which was the subject of features in The New York Times and on National Public Radio. His articles have appeared in numerous journals and magazines including The Yale Law Journal, Representations, Salmagundi, and The Washington Post. He also writes fiction and humor that has appeared in Tikkun, The New Yorker, and The New York Times Book Review, among many other venues. He is the co-author of Sense and Nonsensibility, a parodic look at contemporary culture, to be published by Simon and Schuster in 2004. He teaches courses on the American Supreme Court, the relationship between law and art, legal interpretation, and law and the Holocaust. Visit Lawrence Douglas at

Saby GhoshraySABY GHOSHRAY, Vice President for Development & Compliance for the World Compliance Company, is a prolific researcher in multi-faceted disciplines, investigating issues from cross-cultural perspectives. Dr. Ghoshray studied Law at Cornell University where he also received an MBA at the prestigious Johnson Graduate School of Management. He is multi-lingual, fluent in 6 languages. He is the author of over 50 scholarly articles published in journals, books and conference proceedings, and continues his research on diverse subsets of International Law, Theory of Self-Determination, and Military Tribunals.
Dr. Ghoshray has lectured extensively as well as acted as Panel Chair and Moderator in numerous International Conferences in wide-ranging topics of International Law. Most recently among them, he was one of the Panel Chairs at the 2004 International Law Weekend in New York City, in which his panel discussed the issue of Self-Determination of States within the Framework of International Law. In August 2004, he was the Plenary Speaker at the International Society for the Reform of Criminal Law Conference in Montreal, where he lectured on the Scope, Jurisdiction and Legitimacy of the Iraqi Special Tribunal, and also presented a Workshop on the International Criminal Court. In December 2004, he lectured at the IPFW Institute for Human Rights International Conference in Fort Wayne, Indiana, speaking on The Judicial Treatment of Guantanamo Detainees in the Context of International Law. He also presented at the 17th International Conference of the Society for the Reform of Criminal Law at The Hague in 2003, which he provided expertise on Analyzing Defendant’s Rights and Fairness of U.S Military Tribunals within the Framework of International Law.
Dr. Ghoshray’s current research in Cyberspace Law focuses on Introducing a Newer Contract Paradigm for Privacy Protection in Cyberspace, which has been published in the Spring 2005 issue of Texas Wesleyan Law Review. Additionally, his research in International Law revisits the Challenging Landscape of Self-Determination, which will be published in the Fall 2005 issue of ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law. Combining his corporate and academic expertise within the Private and Company Law his research includes Impact of Sarbanes-Oxley in Comparative Corporate Governance, which was the focus of his lecture at the European Academy of Law in Trier, Germany and will also appear in the European Law Journal ERA-Forum.

OLIVER BENJAMIN HEMMERLE: M.A. (1996) and Dr. phil. (2000) at Mannheim U, researcher at Mannheim U (2000-2002), research fellow of the International Institute for Holocaust at Yad Vashem (2002-2003), lecturer at Chemnitz U (since 2000).

Lyn Shelton GraybillLYN SHELTON GRAYBILL received her B.S. in Religious Studies from the College of William and Mary and her M.A. (1987) and Ph.D. (1991) in Foreign Affairs from the University of Virginia. She is the recipient of awards from the Institute for the Study of World Politics Fellowship, Governor's Fellowship, Helen Lassen Fellowship, Compton Fellowship, Philip Francis duPont Fellowship, White Burkett Miller Center Research Assistant, Pi Sigma Alpha National Honor Society. She is currently teaching at the Sam Numm School of International Affairs at eh Georgia Institute of Technology.
Her publications include two books (Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: Miracle or Model?  Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002 and Religion and Resistance Politics in South Africa, Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood Publishers, 1995) as well as numerous chapters, articles, reviews, invited colloquia and conference presentations.

Tarunabh KhaitanTARUNABH KHAITAN is currently pursuing postgraduate education in law at the University of Oxford on a Rhodes Scholarship. He completed his undergraduate education from the National Law School of India University, Bangalore. His research interests include human rights law, with a special focus on equality and non-discrimination law.

BRUCE MABLEY holds a Phd degree in Philosophy and is presently completing a Doctor of Laws degree at Laval University (Quebec, Canada).  His fields of research specialization in Law are as follows: Philosophy of Law, Islamic and Transnational Law, International Public Law and Comparative Law.  After having spent 10 years working as a Canadian diplomat in Europe and the Middle East, Dr. Mabley became Director of International Cooperation and Professor of Philosophy and Political Science at Concordia University in Montreal.  He is the author of numerous articles related to Islamic Law and Political Philosophy.  He will take up an appointment at Assumption University in Thailand starting in October 2005.

Farhad MalekianFARHAD MALEKIAN is the founder and the director of the Institute of International Criminal Law in Uppsala, Sweden. He is the author of numerous outstanding ‘selected major treatises’ on international criminal law, including The Monopolization of International Criminal Law in the United Nations (1993, 1995), Islamic International Criminal Law: A Comparative Study (1994), Condemning the Use of Force in the Gulf Crisis (1992, 1994) and the two widely acclaimed classic volumes, International Criminal Law: the Legal and Critical Analysis of International Crimes (1991). He lectures international criminal law and public international law and is also the editor of the Contemporary Journal of International Criminal Law, which will be published by the Institute of International Criminal Law in 2005. His work on Crucifying the Philosophy of International Criminal Justice is also forthcoming.
Malekian has contributed a scholarly acknowledged chapter governing International Criminal Responsibility of Individuals and States to the well-known book on International Criminal Law (M. Cherif Bassiouni, 1999). He introduced for the first time the Principle of International Tribunality of Jurisdiction in international criminal law at the Cornell Law School, Cornell University in 2005, embodied in his article on “Emasculating the Philosophy of International Criminal Justice in the Iraqi Special Tribunal” (vol.38: no. 3 Cornell INT’L.J. 2005). He is also the author of The System of International Law: Formation, Treaties, Responsibility (1987) and International Criminal Responsibility of States (1985).

Michael MandelMICHAEL MANDEL is Professor of Law at Osgoode Hall Law School of York University in Toronto where he has taught since 1974. He received his LL.B from Osgoode(1972), his B.C.L. from Oxford University (1973) and became a member of the Ontario Bar in 1976. Professor Mandel has held visiting professorships at law faculties in Israel (the Hebrew University of Jerusalem), and Italy (Torino and Bologna). He was a Jean Monnet Fellow at the European University Institute in Fiesole in 1991. His primary scholarly interests are in international criminal law and comparative constitutional law. His book on the Canadian constitution, The Charter of Rights and the Legalization of Politics in Canada is in its second edition and has been translated into French as La Charte des Droits et Libertés e la judiciarisation du politique au Canada.
He has also published many articles in journals, in collections and as occasional papers. He is a frequent contributor to the op-ed pages of Canada's newspapers and is often heard on radio and television. In May 1999, he led an international team of lawyers who brought charges of war crimes against 68 NATO leaders before the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. In October 2001 he and lawyer Gail Davidson of Vancouver started Lawyers Against the War, a group of jurists with members in fourteen countries, engaged in various activities opposing America’s so-called “War on Terror.” His most recent book, How America Gets Away With Murder: Illegal Wars, Collateral Damage and Crimes Against Humanity was published by Pluto Press in July 2004. It was released in May 2005 in Italian as Come l’America la fa franca con la giustizia internazionale: Guerre illegali, danni collaterali e crimini contro l’umanità. (Torino: Edizioni Gruppo Abele) and is due out in June 2005 in German as Pax Pentagon (Frankfurt: Zweitausendeins).

Michael Marrus MICHAEL MARRUS is Dean of Graduate Studies and the Chancellor Rose and Ray Wolfe Professor of Holocaust Studies at the University of Toronto. He is a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society. A graduate of the University of Toronto, he received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of California at Berkeley. He has been a Guggenheim Fellow, and a visiting fellow of St. Antony's College, Oxford and the Institute for Advanced Studies of the Hebrew University; and has taught at UCLA and Cape Town University in South Africa.
He is the author of The Holocaust in History, which has been translated into many languages. Among other his books are Vichy France and the Jews, coauthored with Robert Paxton, The Unwanted: European Refugees in the Twentieth Century. Michael Marrus has also published a book on the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal for the Bedford Series in History and Culture of St. Martin's Press.

DR. ALEXANDER PRUSIN has a Ph.D. in History from the University of Toronto and is Associate Professor of History at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico, USA.
Prusin's publications include:

  • Nationalizing a Borderland: War, Ethnicity, and Anti-Jewish Violence in East Galicia, 1914-1920, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 2005;
  • The Russian Army and the Jews in Galicia, 1914-1915, in: Marshall Poe, ed., The Military and Society in Russia, 1450-1917, Leiden, The Netherlands 2002, 525-544;
  • Revolution and Ethnic Cleansing in Western Ukraine: The OUN-UPA Assault Against Polish Settlements in Volhynia and East Galicia, 1943-1944, in: Hunt Tooley and Steven B. Vardy, eds., Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe, New York 2003, 517-535; ‘Fascist Criminals to the Gallows!’:
  • The Holocaust and Soviet War Crimes Trials, December 1945-January 1946, Holocaust and Genocide Studies 17, 1 (2003): 1-30.

Mark RigstadMARK RIGSTAD is Assistant Professor of political philosophy and philosophy of law at Oakland University. He earned his Ph.D. in philosophy in 2001 from the Johns Hopkins University, where he was an interdisciplinary fellow in the history of political thought. His current historical book project examines natural law theories of political violence and the power to punish in Early Modern Britain. For a preview, see his essay on 'The Grotian Moment: Natural Penal Rights and Republicanism,' in Penal Practice and Culture, 1500-1900, Palgrave-Macmillan, 2004.
Rigstad's recent work also addresses philosophical issues in contemporary counter-terrorism. His website,, is a free, non-profit, annotated aid to philosophical studies of warfare, terrorism, counter-terrorism, war crimes, nationalism, and international humanitarian intervention.

Jason RalphJASON RALPH is Senior Lecturer in International Relations at the University of Leeds, UK. He is author of a number of articles on American foreign policy, including “Between American and Cosmopolitan Democracy: Understanding American Opposition to the ICC” International Relations Vol.17 (2). His book America and the ICC: An International Society Perspective will be published in 2006.

Terence RoehrigTERENCE ROEHRIG is Associate Professor and Chair of the Political Science department at Cardinal Stritch University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.  He received his PhD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison and is the author of two books, From Deterrence to Engagement: The U.S. Defense Commitment to South Korea (forthcoming - Lexington Books, 2005) and The Prosecution of Former Military Leaders in Newly Democratic Nations: The Cases of Argentina, Greece, and South Korea (McFarland Press, 2002).  He has also published articles and book chapters on North Korea’s nuclear weapons program, Korean security issues, human rights, and transitional justice.

Gregory Topalian GREGORY TOPALIAN is a historian of the Armenian Genocide. His particular focus is on the comparative memories of the Armenian genocide and the Holocaust. His current work focuses on the different levels of denial, from the blatant approach of the Turkish State, to the role academia and the media play both consciously and unconsciously, in failing to adequately recognise the Armenian case as genocide. For the Jackson Symposium, he will be focusing on the manner in which the Tribunals following World War I have been used by the Turkish State to deny that what took place in the Anatolian homelands of the Armenians was a State sponsored genocide. Gregory Topalian is a Director with the Gomidas Institute (UK), whose primary role is to introduce the Armenian Genocide to young people in the United Kingdom. or

Steven VoigtSTEVEN T. VOIGT is a lawyer at a premier law firm with offices across the United States and Europe. After receiving his juris doctorate, Steven served as a judicial clerk to the Pennsylvania appellate court for one year before entering private practice.
He is a writer and a commentator on issues related to public policy, politics, legal reform and constitutional law and author of three books (Letters to America (forthcoming summer 2005), Tyranny: the Collapse of Traditional Law in America, and No Political Solution No Political Messiah), numerous opinion editorials and several law reviews, including "The United States Must Remain Steadfastly Opposed To The Rome Treaty International Criminal Court," published in 2003 by the Widener Law Journal.
He is the executive director of Foundations of Law PAC. He is the public policy advisor to American, a non-profit educational organization that fosters education about American history, an understanding of the role of faith in history, and a recognition of the importance of the original intent of our founding fathers. Mr. Voigt is also a editorial writer for Ambassador Alan Keyes' Renew America, and recently wrote an analysis entitled, "An exposition on the International Criminal Court--its antagonism to constitutional due process and a just alternative."

Marlene Warshawski YahalomMARLENE WARSHAWSKI YAHALOM, Ph.D., is currently the Director of Education at the American Society for Yad Vashem to promote its mission of Holocaust commemoration and remembrance through educational projects and events. Dr. Yahalom has a Masters in the Sociology of Law from Columbia University, and a Ph.D. in Sociology with doctoral research on Collective Memory and the Holocaust from Columbia University. In addition to being the Director of Education at the American Society for Yad Vashem, Dr. Yahalom oversees the Young Leadership Associates division of the American Society.
She serves on the Advisory Board of the Rose and Sigmund Strochlitz Holocaust Center in New London, Connecticut. Having created educational and commemorative programs on the Holocaust, she is currently also working on programs on Holocaust Education through the arts.

Marcia WeissMARCIA J. WEISS, M.A., J.D. attended the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where she graduated cum laude with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French. She then received a Master of Arts degree in French Language and Literature from George Washington University, Washington, DC. Proficient in French, Spanish and Italian, she has held translator positions for the U.S. government and the World Bank in Washington, DC, and Rockwell International in Pittsburgh.
She received a law degree from Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, and served as judicial law clerk in the Pennsylvania trial and appellate courts. Since 1985 she has taught legal studies courses at the University of Pittsburgh, Duquesne University, and currently at Point Park University. Her research centers on the area of biomedical ethics and health law, and her articles have appeared in numerous publications. Recently she has addressed stem cell research advocacy and genetic non-discrimination at community forums, and has been included twice in Who’s Who in American Law. She is also a member of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center’s Ethics Committee and Institutional Review Board.

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